Chapter 1 Shloka 16

एवं प्रवर्तितं चक्रं नानुवर्तयतीह य:।

अघायुरिन्द्रियारामो मोघं पार्थ स जीवति।।१६।।

Raja Yudhishtir – the son of Kunti,

blew the conch ‘Anant Vijay’;

Nakula blew his conch ‘Sughosh’;

Sahdev sounded his conch ‘Mani Pushpak’.

Chapter 1 Shloka 16

अनन्तविजयं राजा कुन्तीपुत्रो युधिष्ठिर:।

नकुल: सहदेवश्च सुघोषमणिपुष्पकौ।।१६।।


Raja Yudhishtir – the son of Kunti, blew the conch ‘Anant Vijay’; Nakula blew his conch ‘Sughosh’; Sahdev sounded his conch ‘Mani Pushpak’.

Anant Vijay’ (eternal victory), was the conch of Yudhishtir:

1. Yudhishtir had defeated many a warrior after blowing on this conch.

2. All his brothers honoured this conch.

3. They had staked their lives on the battlefield many a time on hearing the sound of this conch and had always emerged victorious.

Yudhishtir is called a ‘King’ (Raja) in this shloka, although he was without a kingdom.

1. Sanjay knew that the Pandavas would win the war and Yudhishtir would become king.

2. One who watches from a distance with an impartial eye, sees the Truth.

3. When one does not side with any one party amongst those inimical to each other, one can dispense justice and one’s reasoning is generally correct. It is only when one becomes partial that one’s judgement becomes faulty.

4. Sanjay knew that Yudhishtir was the rightful heir to the throne which Duryodhana had snatched by fraudulent means.

5. Yudhishtir was also the king of righteousness – dharma. He could have seized the kingdom through sheer force or deceit but he chose to reap the fruits of his mistake and smilingly bore the consequences of having lost the game of dice.

Ordinarily a man is unwilling to reap the fruits of his misdoings. Instead, he blames others; he resorts to various devices to veil his transgressions and forgets the distinction between Truth and falsehood in the attempt to do so. He also forgets all his previous vows and promises in his endeavour to escape blame.

One who desires to abide in the Truth does not hide reality. ‘What is, is’: understanding this immutable fact, he tries to live in it. He smilingly endures the fruits of his wrong doings and censures neither himself nor others. He does not blame the situation, but fulfils his duty as the circumstances demand. Such a one is a true adherent of dharma.

The difference between crime and sin

A crime is judged according to a man-made constitution. Sin is born of attachment and ego. To tell a lie for one’s own protection or the protection of one’s own kin, is a sin. To conceal the truth in another’s interest is commendable, but is a crime according to man-made laws.

The sadhak must necessarily measure upto high principles himself; he must not use these standards to judge others. He must learn to endure the loss of his own reputation but should constantly protect the other’s good name. He utilises strategy to save others, not himself. He can even tell a lie to protect the other. For example, when a saintly person had been beaten up by some ruffians, he refused to disclose their identity to the police and stated that he got bruised because of a fall! Or when a noble soul sacrifices himself or his child and resorts to a lie to save the child of another – such a one is lauded for his greatness.

Lord Krishna had vowed not to wield any weapon during the terrible war of Mahabharat. But he immediately used the Sudarshan Chakra to save Arjuna who was being attacked by unfair means. Sudarshan Chakra is so named because it reveals the Lord’s essence through His practical life. The Lord forgot His precondition and risked being called untrue in order to protect justice.

Little one, this proves that crime and sin are extremely different from each other. So also are dharma and justice; duty and dharma.

The greatness of the renowned lies in their adherence to Dharma

Dharma is inherent in greatness. One established in dharma is forgetful of self interest. He who oversteps man-made laws for his own needs, is a thief. But one who does so for the other’s good, is indeed great; even more so, if he does not fear the consequence of his action but smilingly accepts the repercussions of the so-called ‘crime’. Such great souls love the Lord and therefore love all beings. But remember, they never trespass the norms of society for their own establishment, name or livelihood.

In Yudhishtir’s case, it was sufficient that he bore the brunt of his own misdeeds smilingly and did not attempt to defame Duryodhana by revealing the latter’s transgressions. Yudhishtir adhered to the worldly code of justice.

Nakula blew his conch ‘Sughosh’, producing a fearful sound to proclaim war. Sahdev blew his conch ‘Mani Pushpak’, bejewelled with rare gems – a unique conch which was a symbol of courage and purity.

All these conches bespoke the righteousness and courage of the Pandavas.


अध्याय १

एवं प्रवर्तितं चक्रं नानुवर्तयतीह य:।

अघायुरिन्द्रियारामो मोघं पार्थ स जीवति।।१६।।

हे पार्थ!

शब्दार्थ :

१. जो इस प्रकार प्रवर्तित सृष्टि चक्र के अनुसार इस संसार रूपा लोक में नहीं घूमता,

२. वह इन्द्रियों में रमण करने वाला, पाप आयु है

३. और व्यर्थ ही जीता है।

तत्व विस्तार :

भगवान कहने लगे अर्जुन से :

1. जो यज्ञ पूर्ण कर्म नहीं करता, वह जीवन वृथा गंवाता है।

2. जो शास्त्र विहित राह का अनुसरण नहीं करता, वह पाप पूर्ण जीवन वाला है।

3. जो केवल अपने लिये जीता है, वह वृथा ही जीता है।

4. जो सब कुछ ले और किसी को कुछ न दे, वह तो संसार पर बोझ ही है।

5. जो केवल अपने लिये ही काम करता है, वह कृतघ्न और दुराचारी है।

6. अज्ञान, मोह से भरा हुआ वह यज्ञ के तत्व को नहीं जानता।

7. न वह कर्म को जान सका और न ही वह धर्म को जानता है।

8. वह अपने से ही बेगाना रह जाता है और अपने स्वरूप को बिना जाने ही मर जाता है।

9. ऐसे इन्सान की बुद्धि भी जागृत नहीं हुई, वह तो व्यर्थ ही जीता रहा।

10. वह सुख की तलाश में इन्द्रियों के पीछे जाता रहा और सुख भी उसे नहीं मिला।

11. वह कुछ भी पुण्य कर्म न कर सका; और जीवन भर पाप ही करता रहा।

12. वह पाप ही कमाता रहा, इसलिये उसे आगे भी पाप पूर्ण दु:खमय जीवन ही मिलेगा।

13. जब बीज ही अच्छे नहीं बनाये, आगे वह क्या पायेगा? उसने व्यर्थ ही जीवन गंवा दिया।

14. वह पाप योनि में जायेगा; क्योंकि जैसा उसने दूसरों से किया, वही तो उसको मिलेगा।

नव जन्म जब आपको मिलेगा, जहान अंधियारा ही होगा। समिधा विपरीत ही पावोगे, क्योंकि, आपने दूसरों को विपरीतता ही दी थी। अन्न भी आपको मिलेगा नहीं, क्योंकि आपने दूसरों को अन्न कभी दिया ही नहीं होगा। जग भी आपको ठुकरायेगा, क्योंकि आप नित्य जग को ठुकराते रहे।

पाप योनि से समझ ले :

1. जीवन भर पाप करने वाला,

2. अशुभ कर्म करने वाला,

3. दूसरों का अनिष्ट करने वाला,

4. कुकृत्य करने वाला,

5. निन्दनीय और असत्मय कर्म करने वाला,

6. असत् पर विश्वास करने वाला,

7. बुरे बुरे विचारों में विचरने वाला,

8. केवल तन की स्थापति के लिये ही जीने वाला,

9. केवल अपने मन की मौज के लिये ही जीने वाला समझ लो।

भगवान कहते हैं कि ऐसे लोग व्यर्थ ही जीते हैं। वे तो भूमि पर केवल बोझ ही होते हैं। केवल दु:ख फैलाने वाले ही होते हैं। न वे कभी आप सुख पाते हैं, न दूसरों को सुखी होने देते हैं। न वे कभी सत् पर चलते हैं, न दूसरों को सत् पर चलने देते हैं। वे पापी लोग पाप ही करते हैं और पाप का नित्य विस्तार ही करते हैं।

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